，回想当年，你一定会有过这样的岁月经历：要录制一张专辑，你要跟随乐队到酒吧和俱乐部收录现场演出，然后详尽办法让哪位大牌制作人能听到并给你们一个机会。 If you are a veteran musician , thinking back then, you must have had such years of experience: to record an album, you have to follow the band to bars and clubs to record live performances, and then detailed methods for which major producer Can hear and give you a chance. Today, with the development of the Internet and technology, the means of recording has become unprecedentedly simple, and good music can also be produced from the bedroom, garage, or utility room. Imagine: record a song, surf the Internet, spread the virus, and become famous overnight! too young too simple! 当然没有这么简单！ Don't think too much, of course it's not that simple! 普通的事情~~ 而已 ！ Xiaoling, I just want to express that it is super ordinary to record songs today ~~ !!
However , dreams still have to come, just in case they are realized by accident! But before the dream comes true, you must first understand the process of song recording. 。 Today we will explain the recording steps in four steps .
Step 1: Recording
，很多时候整个演奏只需录一遍而且也只能录一遍，只需要用到不超过两支麦克风。 The recording process used to be very simple . In many cases, the entire performance only needs to be recorded once and only once. Only two microphones are needed. 。 Today, as human beings who constantly toss ourselves, we use a "complex" method to record- "track recording" . The instruments are recorded separately and then “mixed” together.
Of course, there are benefits to doing this, the most important of which are:
1) Allow for independent tone shaping for each instrument;
2) Allow each instrument in the song to record one by one.
In the past, recording required a whole team. Today, it can be done alone, and the effect may be better.
Here is a general guideline:
Record a guide track
Record a track that can provide accompaniment guidance for other instruments. Most people use a simple metronome to set the tempo, or make a pre-recorded drum loop track. Since not all songs maintain a constant tempo, another way is to make a temporary track. 逐次叠加每件乐器的单条音轨，直到指引音轨可以删除。 Then overlay the individual tracks of each instrument one by one until the guide track can be deleted.
2. Record the rhythm part
Rhythm is the foundation of every song. While playing, everyone follows the jazz drum or bass, so it is not difficult to understand that these instruments should be recorded first.
For some songs without drums or bass, you can record first as a rhythmic instrument, such as an acoustic guitar.
3. Record harmony
The next step is to add chord structure to the song. Depending on the song, this step might be rhythm guitar, piano, synthesizer, trumpet, etc.
4. Record the melody
，一般先录制在旋律中占据最主要地位的（通常是人声或主音吉他），然后再去录制其它支援补充性的旋律乐器。 Most songs use a combination of instruments to shape the melody . Generally, the most important part of the melody (usually a vocal or lead guitar) is recorded first, and then other complementary melody instruments are recorded.
5. Touch up
。 The final step is to modify and polish the main track . Usually includes: vocal vocals, percussion fills, sampled sound effects ...
Step 2: Edit
No matter how carefully you did in the previous step, there will be some flaws and errors that need to be fixed. With today's advanced DAW editing tools, you can accomplish these tasks.
In general, the editing session includes five common tasks:
，判断哪些有用，哪些没用。 Make an overall assessment of the current semi-finished product to determine what works and what doesn't. For example, you can: delete the entire worthless track; cut out the messy mixing section of the track; delete the entire paragraph of the song ...
Compare the multiple recordings of each track to the best one. You can also take the best of the different times and combine them into a new Frankenstein recording.
First you have to cut the blank tracks before, after, and between the instruments. That's removal: background noise, speaker noise, footsteps, chair movement, breathing, or just the sound of still air. To further reduce noise, you can add a high-pass filter to the bass-free instrument track to remove low-frequency rumble.
There are two ways to edit the time value and correct the lost notes:
Cut and paste-suitable for percussion instruments;
Time scale-suitable for most instruments.
Software is used to correct some deviated notes, which are usually used for vocals, but are also applicable to most melodic instruments.
!! !! 能够在录音时解决的问题不要留到编辑环节！ Special reminder : Don't leave the problem that can be solved during recording to the editing session!
Step 3: Mixing
。 After finishing the sub-tracks, you need to integrate them into a whole. This process is called mixing . The mixing process is an art and there are many ways to do it, but the basic steps are something everyone will do.
- 确保相互之间没有其中一件乐器太突出或太弱。 Balancing Faders -Make sure that none of the instruments are too prominent or too weak.
- 给每件乐器在立体声系统中安排一个位置，就像乐手在舞台上有特定的位置一样。 Panning-Assign a position for each instrument in the stereo system, just like a musician has a specific position on the stage.
- 为每件乐器塑造频率声形，避免两件乐器争抢同一段频率范围。 Equalization -Shaping the frequency sound profile of each instrument to prevent two instruments from competing for the same frequency range.
- 使乐器的动态范围变得平整，让每个乐音都能被清晰听见。 Compression -Smooths out the dynamic range of the instrument so that every tone can be clearly heard. At the same time increase the overall volume of the mix.
- 使混音变成三维空间，增添深度，同时使乐器融合到同一个空间里面。 Reverb -Makes the mix into a three-dimensional space, adding depth, while blending the instruments into the same space.
- 让你在歌曲的不同点切换设置参数，给你的混音带来动态的变化。 Automation -Allows you to switch setting parameters at different points in the song, bringing dynamic changes to your mix.
Step 4: Mastering
Before mastering, all audio tracks should be re-recorded into a single stereo file called "bounced". After finishing, there are some ways to make the song better. ： For example :
- 通过进一步的压缩和限阀，让平均的信号水平达到尽可能高，但要避免牺牲过多动态。 Maximize Loudness -With further compression and valve limiting, the average signal level can be as high as possible, but without sacrificing too much dynamics.
- 进一步EQ，以及分频率段进行独立的压缩。 Frequency equalization -further EQ, and independent compression by frequency band.
- 运用特定的插件给混音中的高频声音增加“宽度”。 Stereo Field Widening -Use specific plug-ins to add "width" to the high frequency sounds in your mix.
After everything sounds perfect, convert the audio track to the appropriate sample rate and bit depth. Now popular high-definition audio 192kHz / 24Bits.
In simple terms, mastering is difficult. Generally mixing engineers will outsource the mastering process to a "mastering engineer". However, good mastering engineers are expensive and not everyone is willing to pay.
母带处理吗？ So the question is: Do you have to master it?
All commercial studio productions are for sale and all are mastered. The purpose of many amateur recordings is "I just want to ...". Home recording studios usually omit the master tape directly. If you just want to share your music with family and friends, who cares?
However, if you want to record professional music, or if you really want to become famous overnight, then mastering is a must.